All posts tagged The Biggest Challenges To Evolution

Similar Worldwide Rock Layers: What do they really tell us? Creation Perspective

 

Creation Answer:

FoldedMountains“Evolutionists and creationists agree: the ideal conditions for forming most fossils and fossil-bearing rock layers are flood conditions. The debate is just whether it was many “little floods” over a long time, or mostly the one big Flood of Noah’s time.”[i]

Go out and find a piece of concrete and try bending it. This is one of the problems for old rock layers all over the world, in that hardened rock will crack and break when pushed or pulled. But we see smoothly bent rock layers all over the world.[ii]

This could be done if the layers (millions of years worth) were soft at the same time or if the layers were under extreme heat and pressure; their shape could deform without breaking. The problem with the latter view is that the pressure and temperature would have metamorphosized and changed the rock, but these examples of bent layers are still sedimentary rock layers. The best explanation is that they were still soft after being laid down and then uplifted and bent at nearly the same time. This is a massive geological event consistent with a global flood.[iii]

Rock layers are different from each other based on their composition, temperature, and how fast or slow their flood current is. In some layers, you have very fine grains of sediments and in other layers, there large boulders as big as cars, which means that a fast current would have had to carry those huge boulders. From their view, evolutionists can’t explain these boulders.

As different currents are swirling during the time of the flood, you would have different layers (think of them like pancakes) formed even in different places (offset pancakes). This is why there are often missing layers in one region but are in order in a different region.

 

Tapeats Sandstone Map

Tapeats Sandstone Map

Ph.D. Geologist Steven A. Austin says that “Every continent contains layers of sedimentary rocks that span vast areas. Many of these layers can even be traced across continents.” There are “six megasequences (very thick, distinctive sequences of sedimentary rock layers) that can be traced right across North America.”[iv] Some of these sequences include layers like the Tapeats Sandstone that covers most of North America and even beyond, and chalk beds that stretch across a large part of Europe and into the Middle East, and the Coal Bed that stretches through much of North America as well.[v]

PolystrateTree

PolystrateTree

Other evidences that point to a global flood are the rapidly buried fossils (some even “misplaced” or “out of place” fossils with reference to the evolutionary timeline[vi]), jumbled-up mass fossil beds, sea creature fossils high above sea level, rapid or no erosion between strata, sediments in rock layers that have been transported long distances, and layers that appear to be laid down in rapid succession (polystrate fossils lie vertical through “millions of years” of deposition).[vii] The global flood would have been perfect conditions for making these rock layers.

 

polystrate-tree-cartoonWhat the Bible Says: Genesis 6-7

by Brian Mariani and others

 

Before commenting, please read the following disclosures.

Any offensive language will automatically disqualify your comment for publication, even if the arguments contained are good. Please comment on the ideas that are presented and not the presenter.  If your comment becomes an ad hominem argument and does not substantially address the issue, your comment will be disqualified as well.  We are looking for real arguments, not fallacious ones, so that we can present and challenge opposing ideas and arguments as they are truly believed by evolutionists.  We do not want to tear down straw men as well as you do not want to be misrepresented. Also, please keep your comments as brief as possible, and if the majority of the comment does not address the current issue, but becomes a red-herring, it will not be posted as well. If your comment does not fall into one of the above restrictions, then your comment will be posted unedited (you may want to check your spelling, grammar, etc.) We thank you for your time and comments.

One thing to keep in mind, each blog is one piece of evidence. Evidence has to then be interpreted, which is not a fact…but evidence strengthening or weakening a specific hypothesis or theory. So there can be multiple ways of interpreting the same evidence. I am not being unscientific, but asking more questions and being skeptical is being more scientific. I am still working on these, so please help with your comments.

 

If you would like to see if an AOI seminar is right for you, or you would like to help the work of Alpha Omega Institute, please visit our website events page or our donate page. Keep up to date with what AOI is doing.  Thanks for your partnership.

 


[i] Dr. Gary Parker, Creation: Facts of Life, How Fast?, January 1, 1994, http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/cfl/how-fast, accessed October 10, 2013.

[ii] A Pocket Guide to…Best Evidences: Science and the Bible refute millions of years, Answers in Genesis – US, 2013.

[iii] A Pocket Guide to…Best Evidences: Science and the Bible refute millions of years, Answers in Genesis – US, 2013.

[iv] Andrew A. Snelling, Ph.D., Transcontinental Rock Layers: Flood Evidence Number Three, May 7, 2008, Answers in Genesis, http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/am/v3/n3/transcontinental-rock-layers#fnList_1_1, accessed October 10, 2013.

L. L. Sloss, “Sequences in the Cratonic Interior of North America,” Geological Society of America Bulletin 74 (1963): 93–114.

[v] Andrew A. Snelling, Ph.D., Transcontinental Rock Layers: Flood Evidence Number Three, May 7, 2008, Answers in Genesis, http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/am/v3/n3/transcontinental-rock-layers#fnList_1_1, accessed October 10, 2013.

[vi] Dr. Gary Parker, Creation: Facts of Life, How Fast?, January 1, 1994, http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/cfl/how-fast, accessed October 10, 2013.

[vii] Andrew A. Snelling, Ph.D., Geologic Evidences for the Genesis Flood: Part 1: An Overview, September 18, 2007, Answers in Genesis, http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/am/v2/n4/geologic-evidences-part-one, accessed October 10, 2013.

CEM Research and Polystrate Fossils, Creation Evidence Museum of Texas, http://www.creationevidence.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=49, accessed October 10, 2013.

Similar Worldwide Rock Layers: What do they really tell us? Naturalistic/Evolutionary Perspective

 

Introduction:

Rock layers are levels of sediment that build up over time. They look like bands and they usually run horizontally, but can sometimes be slanted or vertical due to its compaction and formation being on an angle like sand dunes or due to seismic activity. In rock layers, fossils can be found giving evidence of the past. How did the rock layers really form? How fast did they form? How many rock layers are there? How do the rock layers compare all over the world? What causes their deformation?

geologic-column

Naturalistic/Evolutionary Answer:

Rock layers are formed by many seasonal flood deposits, by volcanic deposition, and by sediment deposition, especially at the bottom of lakes or large ancient seas. Volcanic material and/or sediments build up and cover the earth and rock layers are created by wind or by water when enough sediments are built up creating pressure on lower layers.[i]  A rock layer will cover dead and living animals and plants.

The amount of lime or cementing agent is used in the sediment mixture will determine how long it will take to turn into rock. If there is a lot of lime it may take only a few years, if there is little to none, then pressure and hot water have to pack the sediment into rock and that might take “many thousands of years.” This is part of why different rocks have a higher or lower hardness.[ii] Volcanic rocks could form within minutes.

The age of the fossil can be determined by its depth below the surface, the deeper the fossil, the older the age.  Older rock layers have simpler, less evolved organisms than higher, younger rock layers.[iii] This is not “an abstract diagram: this is the actual record of the earth’s crust, recorded in rocks around the world…Since fossils progress from fish at the bottom to humans at the top, we have clear evidence that life evolved through time.”[iv]

Occasionally in the fossil layers, there are unconformities where there are missing layers in one region. Those missing layers may not have formed in that area at that time or they did form, but were consequently eroded away.[v]

Check back tomorrow for the Creation Answer.  Thanks again for your constructive help.

 

by Brian Mariani and others

 

Is the above correct? Do you evolutionists agree with this position? I have tried to write it as you believe it. Do you have any disagreements or concerns or additions?

 

Before commenting, please read the following disclosures.

Any offensive language will automatically disqualify your comment for publication, even if the arguments contained are good. Please comment on the ideas that are presented and not the presenter.  If your comment becomes an ad hominem argument and does not substantially address the issue, your comment will be disqualified as well.  We are looking for real arguments, not fallacious ones, so that we can present and challenge opposing ideas and arguments as they are truly believed by evolutionists.  We do not want to tear down straw men as well as you do not want to be misrepresented. Also, please keep your comments as brief as possible, and if the majority of the comment does not address the current issue, but becomes a red-herring, it will not be posted as well. If your comment does not fall into one of the above restrictions, then your comment will be posted unedited (you may want to check your spelling, grammar, etc.) We thank you for your time and comments.

One thing to keep in mind, each blog is one piece of evidence. Evidence has to then be interpreted, which is not a fact…but evidence strengthening or weakening a specific hypothesis or theory. So there can be multiple ways of interpreting the same evidence. I am not being unscientific, but asking more questions and being skeptical is being more scientific. I am still working on these, so please help with your comments.

 

If you would like to see if an AOI seminar is right for you, or you would like to help the work of Alpha Omega Institute, please visit our website events page or our donate page. Keep up to date with what AOI is doing.  Thanks for your partnership.

 


[i] Shlomiya Bar-Yam, Fossil Layers, New England Complex Systems Institute, http://www.necsi.edu/projects/evolution/evidence/layers/evidence_layers.html, accessed October 10, 2013.

[ii] Bob Avakian, Time to Form Sedimentary Rocks, February 2009, Newton: Ask a Scientist, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/env99/env99396.htm, accessed October 10, 2013.

[iii] Rock Layers: Timeline of Life on Earth, Prehistoric Planet, PaleoClones, LLC, http://www.prehistoricplanet.com/news/index.php?id=48, accessed October 10, 2013.

[iv] Rock Layers: Timeline of Life on Earth, Prehistoric Planet, PaleoClones, LLC, http://www.prehistoricplanet.com/news/index.php?id=48, accessed October 10, 2013.

[v] David J. Leveson, Relative Age: Determining Relative Age From The Rock Record, 2006, http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/geology/leveson/core/topics/time/froshlec8.html, accessed October 10, 2013.

Index Fossils: How old are they? Creation Perspective

 

Creation Answer:

“The order of the fossil record can best be explained by hydrological sorting during Noah’s flood.[i]  Currents direct the different sediment types to where they will be laid down. Animals often move in herds, flocks, or groups and thus you will find similar organisms with similar organisms.

Some animals could run and climb from tidal waves for longer or fly for longer before being submerged by the catastrophic flood. Because of these abilities, we see evidence for the order in the fossil record.

Coelacanth

Coelacanth

Index fossils are not only found deep in sediment, but some have been found still living to this day. An example of a living index fossil is the Coelacanth. This is a fish that is found in 70 million year old rocks. This fish was thought to have gone into extinction at that time and so we can date other things to about 70 million years ago, but now they are found in the Indian Ocean. So now we can’t be sure if an organism next to a Coelacanth is 70 million years old or 10 million years old or 10 years old.

Other living fossils include: the gingko tree, graptolites (300 million years old), “the tuatara (supposedly extinct since the Cretaceous Period until found still living in New Zealand), the Lepidocaris crustacean (only found as fossils in Devonian rocks), the Metasequoia conifer tree (thought extinct for the past 20 million years), the Neopilina mollusk (supposedly extinct for 280 million years), the lingula brachiopod (“extinct” since the Ordovician), and even the trilobite (chief index fossil of the even more ancient Cambrian Period).” Algae that is supposedly in 3.4 billion year old rocks still exist today…are those rocks really 3.4 billion years old?

Search “living fossil” on the internet and the list goes on and on for more examples. There is simply abundant evidence that living organisms today are practically identical to fossilized grandparents of “millions of years ago” if not “billions of years ago.” This is evidence that no evolution has taken place in those organisms.[ii]

Index fossils are the primary method of dating something. Often there are huge inconsistencies between dating based on rock layer and index fossils as compared to radiometric dating methods.[iii]

fossil-dragonfly-&-contemporary

Fossil dragonfly with contemporary dragonfly

Scientists study fossils (including index fossils) and claim that evolution happens from one fossil to another, but currently there is much confusion over what a “species” actually is. A snail with a different color or shape to its shell could be a totally different species. This is simply variety within the snail kind, but not evidence of evolution. They still have the same DNA which allows that variety.

This leads to another question, “are the index fossils a reliable way to date rock layers over billions of years of history if scientists can’t agree on the classification of living creatures today?”[iv]

Ph.D. geologist Steven A. Austin, also describes how index fossils often have a large range of layers where they can be found and that the geologic record has many inconsistencies, with fossils and rocks in places that they shouldn’t be.[v] There are many examples that “as more and more fossils are found, the ranges of fossils keep increasing.”[vi] So those fossils are less of a pinpoint to how old something is. Austin explains how the geologic record is not as cut and dry and simple as evolution would assume by saying “strata systems are believed in some places to be inverted, repeated, or inserted where they do not belong.”[vii]

The jumbled and ordered nature of the rock layers and fossils, alongside of the fact of many missing transitional fossils, provide better evidence of a massive global flood rather than the slow build up of layers over millions of years.

 

What the Bible Says: Genesis 6:17, Genesis 7-9

 

by Brian Mariani and others

 

Before commenting, please read the following disclosures.

Any offensive language will automatically disqualify your comment for publication, even if the arguments contained are good. Please comment on the ideas that are presented and not the presenter.  If your comment becomes an ad hominem argument and does not substantially address the issue, your comment will be disqualified as well.  We are looking for real arguments, not fallacious ones, so that we can present and challenge opposing ideas and arguments as they are truly believed by evolutionists.  We do not want to tear down straw men as well as you do not want to be misrepresented. Also, please keep your comments as brief as possible, and if the majority of the comment does not address the current issue, but becomes a red-herring, it will not be posted as well. If your comment does not fall into one of the above restrictions, then your comment will be posted unedited (you may want to check your spelling, grammar, etc.) We thank you for your time and comments.

One thing to keep in mind, each blog is one piece of evidence. Evidence has to then be interpreted, which is not a fact…but evidence strengthening or weakening a specific hypothesis or theory. So there can be multiple ways of interpreting the same evidence. I am not being unscientific, but asking more questions and being skeptical is being more scientific. I am still working on these, so please help with your comments.

 

If you would like to see if an AOI seminar is right for you, or you would like to help the work of Alpha Omega Institute, please visit our website events page or our donate page. Keep up to date with what AOI is doing.  Thanks for your partnership.



[i] John C. Whitcomb and Hemry M. Morris, The Genesis Flood: The Biblical Record and Its Scientific Implications, P & R Publishing, October 20, 1982.

[ii] Henry Morris, Ph.D., The Profusion of Living Fossils, Institute for Creation Research, http://www.icr.org/article/774/, accessed October 8, 2013.

[iii] Roger Patterson, Evolution Exposed: Earth Science, Chapter 6: Geologic Column, January 20, 2011, http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/ee2/geologic-column, accessed October 8, 2013.

Andrew Snelling, Geological Conflict: Young Radiocarbon Date for Ancient Fossil Wood Challenges Fossil Dating, March 1, 2000, Answers in Genesis, http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/cm/v22/n2/geology, accessed October 8, 2013.

[iv] Roger Patterson, Evolution Exposed: Earth Science, Chapter 6: Geologic Column, January 20, 2011, http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/ee2/geologic-column, accessed October 8, 2013.

[v] Dr. Gary Parker, Creation: Facts of Life, How Fast?, January 1, 1994, http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/cfl/how-fast, accessed October 10, 2013.

[vi] John Woodmorappe, The fossil record: Becoming more random all the time, Creation Ministries International, http://creation.com/the-fossil-record, accessed October 8, 2013.

[vii] Steven A. Austin, Ph.D., Ten Misconceptions about the Geologic Column, Institute for Creation Research, http://www.icr.org/article/242/107/, accessed October 8, 2013.

 

Index Fossils: How old are they? Naturalistic/Evolutionary Perspective

 

Introduction:

An index fossils is a common, widely distributed fossil that is typically found in the same geologic layers or range.[i] It can then be used to give a relative age of rock layers and other fossils since they know what layer it usually comes from and therefore how old it is.

Index fossils are mainly found in sedimentary rock. How old are they? Can we trust their estimated ages? Are they consistently found in the same place? Are index fossils being found alive today?

 

Naturalistic/Evolutionary Answer:

trilo-daves-vbs“Often, the layers of rock can be dated by the types of fossils they contain… Scientists have determined the relative times of appearance and disappearance of many kinds of organisms from the location of their fossils within the sedimentary rock layers.”[ii]

The fossils preserved in the fossil record show the history and evolution of organisms throughout time. “The stretch of geologic history is commonly referred to as “deep time.”” By charting the geologic layers and their fossils, we can understand the history of the earth better and the process of evolution better. The oldest rock is estimated at over 4 billion years old and the oldest fossils being about 3.5 billion years old. The history of life can be charted from evidence in the fossil record as follows: little bacteria to algae to soft bodied organisms to an explosion of life called the Cambrian explosion to land plants and fishes to amphibians to reptiles to mammals and birds to finally everything that exists today including humans.[iii]

 

Common index fossils include shelled organisms like Ammonites, brachiopods, graptolites, corals, nanofossils (microscopic fossils), trilobites, mollusks and more.[iv]

 

Check back tomorrow for the Creation Answer.  Thanks again for your constructive help.

 

by Brian Mariani and others

 

Is the above correct? Do you evolutionists agree with this position? I have tried to write it as you believe it. Do you have any disagreements or concerns or additions?

 

Before commenting, please read the following disclosures.

Any offensive language will automatically disqualify your comment for publication, even if the arguments contained are good. Please comment on the ideas that are presented and not the presenter.  If your comment becomes an ad hominem argument and does not substantially address the issue, your comment will be disqualified as well.  We are looking for real arguments, not fallacious ones, so that we can present and challenge opposing ideas and arguments as they are truly believed by evolutionists.  We do not want to tear down straw men as well as you do not want to be misrepresented. Also, please keep your comments as brief as possible, and if the majority of the comment does not address the current issue, but becomes a red-herring, it will not be posted as well. If your comment does not fall into one of the above restrictions, then your comment will be posted unedited (you may want to check your spelling, grammar, etc.) We thank you for your time and comments.

One thing to keep in mind, each blog is one piece of evidence. Evidence has to then be interpreted, which is not a fact…but evidence strengthening or weakening a specific hypothesis or theory. So there can be multiple ways of interpreting the same evidence. I am not being unscientific, but asking more questions and being skeptical is being more scientific. I am still working on these, so please help with your comments.

 

If you would like to see if an AOI seminar is right for you, or you would like to help the work of Alpha Omega Institute, please visit our website events page or our donate page. Keep up to date with what AOI is doing.  Thanks for your partnership.



[i] Index Fossils, Enchanted Learning, http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/glossary/IndexFossils.shtml, accessed October 8, 2013.

[ii] Dating Rock Layers, Genesis Park, http://www.genesispark.com/exhibits/fossils/dating/, accessed October 8, 2013. Quoting Glencoe, Biology Textbook, 1994, pp. 306-307.

[iii] Deep Time, PBS, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/change/deeptime/, accessed October 8, 2013.

[iv] Roger Patterson, Evolution Exposed: Earth Science, Chapter 6: Geologic Column, January 20, 2011, http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/ee2/geologic-column, accessed October 8, 2013.

Index Fossils, Enchanted Learning, http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/glossary/IndexFossils.shtml, accessed October 8, 2013.

Missing Links: Will we find them…or not? Creation Perspective

 

Creation Answer:

Piltdown Man

Piltdown Man

Evolution assumes that every organism has evolved and so ultimately the burden of proof should be on them to show the transitions of every type of organism. It is okay to hypothesize that there are transitional forms in the fossil record, but at a certain point, if evidence is not found, the hypothesis should be discarded.

There is little to no evidence for the transitions of: giraffes, elephants, the platypus, dinosaurs, Precambrian to Cambrian, Invertebrate to Vertebrae, Fish to Amphibian, Amphibian to Reptile, and Reptile to Birds and Mammals.[i] I grant that every once in a while, a new fossil comes out that supposedly links organisms together, but with the amount of organisms alive today, there should be more transitional fossils than the number of fossils already found.[ii]

Evolution is a process of slow change, and so there should be a lot of transitions. Evolutionists solve this by resorting to “punctuated equilibrium,” meaning that evolution happened rapidly and therefore the conditions weren’t right to fossilize the transitions during that time. The lack of evidence (fossils) is their evidence for this hypothesis.

The evidence of transitions has often consisted of hoaxes or misunderstood fossils before they could be properly identified, such as: Piltdown Man, Nebraska Man, Java Man, Pakicetus, Ida, and Archaeoraptor. [iii]

Archaeopteryx

Archaeopteryx Fossil

Even Tiktaalik and Archaeopteryx are highly debated as links. There are 4-footed land animal footprints 18 million years before Tiktaalik, which would show that Tiktaalik wasn’t the first link to land dwelling animals.[iv] And there have been fully formed birds found before Archaeopteryx, so Archaeopteryx wasn’t the link between dinosaur and bird. Some even say that Archaeopteryx is simply just a bird with no evidence of being part dinosaur.[v] Many even debate if Australopithecus afarensis is a human ancestor.[vi]

“The renowned evolutionist Stephen Jay Gould wrote:

The absence of fossil evidence for intermediary stages between major transitions in organic design, indeed our inability, even in our imagination, to construct functional intermediates in many cases, has been a persistent and nagging problem for gradualistic accounts of evolution.”[vii]

Here is an interesting quote from Johnjoe McFadden, an evolutionist and professor of Molecular Genetics:

“Most species, including most horses, appear abruptly in the fossil record, change very little over their entire history and then disappear just as unceremoniously. This pattern is well known to paleontologists who have actually attributed it to the imperfection of the fossil record: the missing links between one species and another have all died without the decency to leave their remains as fossils.”[viii]

Ph.D. creation researcher Jonathan Sarfati continues this thought in saying that “All 32 mammal orders appear abruptly and fully formed in the fossil record.”[ix]

Transitional organisms may not be as well suited for their environment. For example, “If a bat or bird evolved from a land animal, the transitional forms would have forelimbs that were neither good legs nor good wings. So how would such things be selected?”[x]

God designed everything in the beginning, as they still are today. There is fossil evidence that living organisms have changed very little or not at all in supposed millions of years. There are small changes, but only within kinds as is already allowed for in their DNA.

 

What the Bible Says: Creation – Gen 1 (“after their kind”), Flood – Gen. 7-9

 

by Brian Mariani and others

 

Before commenting, please read the following disclosures.

Any offensive language will automatically disqualify your comment for publication, even if the arguments contained are good. Please comment on the ideas that are presented and not the presenter.  If your comment becomes an ad hominem argument and does not substantially address the issue, your comment will be disqualified as well.  We are looking for real arguments, not fallacious ones, so that we can present and challenge opposing ideas and arguments as they are truly believed by evolutionists.  We do not want to tear down straw men as well as you do not want to be misrepresented. Also, please keep your comments as brief as possible, and if the majority of the comment does not address the current issue, but becomes a red-herring, it will not be posted as well. If your comment does not fall into one of the above restrictions, then your comment will be posted unedited (you may want to check your spelling, grammar, etc.) We thank you for your time and comments.

One thing to keep in mind, each blog is one piece of evidence. Evidence has to then be interpreted, which is not a fact…but evidence strengthening or weakening a specific hypothesis or theory. So there can be multiple ways of interpreting the same evidence. I am not being unscientific, but asking more questions and being skeptical is being more scientific. I am still working on these, so please help with your comments.

 

If you would like to see if an AOI seminar is right for you, or you would like to help the work of Alpha Omega Institute, please visit our website events page or our donate page. Keep up to date with what AOI is doing.  Thanks for your partnership.



[i] Wolf-Ekkehard Lönnig, The Evolution of the Long-Necked Giraffe, last updated October 19, 2010, http://www.weloennig.de/Giraffe.pdf, accessed October 8, 2013.

Elephant Evolution, http://www.himandus.net/elefunteria/library/science+nature/evolution.html, accessed October 8, 2013.

Paula Weston, The Platypus: Still More Questions Than Answers for Evolutionists, March 1, 2002, Answers in Genesis, http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/cm/v24/n2/platypus, accessed October 8, 2013.

Dinosaurs: Phylogenetic Chart, July 2, 1998, Answers in Genesis, http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/1998/07/02/phylogenetic-chart, accessed October 8, 2013.

Jonathan Sarfati, Ph.D., F.M., Refuting Evolution, August 23, 2008, Creation Book Publishers, Creation Ministries International, http://creation.com/refuting-evolution-chapter-3-the-links-are-missing, accessed October 8, 2013.

[ii] John D. Morris, Ph.D., What’s a Missing Link?, Institute for Creation Research, http://www.icr.org/article/2709/, accessed October 7, 2013.

[iii] Archaeoraptor hoax update – National Geographiic recants!, March 2, 2000, http://creation.com/archaeoraptor-hoax-updatenational-geographic-recants, accessed October 8, 2013.

Carl Wieland, The evolutionary parade of ‘missing links’: The floats keep changing!, May 29, 2012, Creation Ministries International, http://creation.com/missing-links-parade, accessed October 8, 2013.

Don Batten, Darwin fossil hyper-hype, May 23, 2009, Creation Ministries International, http://creation.com/darwin-fossil-ida-hype, accessed October 8, 2013.

[iv] Jonathan Sarfati, Ph.D., F.M., Tiktaalik roseae – a fishy ‘missing link’, April 15, 2006, Creation Ministries International, http://creation.com/tiktaalik-roseae-a-fishy-missing-link, accessed October 8, 2013.

Carl Wieland, The evolutionary parade of ‘missing links’: The floats keep changing!, May 29, 2012, Creation Ministries International, http://creation.com/missing-links-parade, accessed October 8, 2013.

[v] Gary Bates, That quote! – about the missing transitional fossils: Embarrassed evolutionists try to ‘muddy the waters’, Creation Ministries International, http://creation.com/That-quotemdashabout-the-missing-transitional-fossils, October 8, 2013.

[vi] “Lucy” isn’t the “Missing Link!”, June 1, 1990, Answers in Genesis, http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/cm/v12/n3/lucy, accessed October 8, 2013.

[vii] Jonathan Sarfati, Ph.D., F.M., Refuting Evolution, August 23, 2008, Creation Book Publishers, Creation Ministries International, http://creation.com/refuting-evolution-chapter-3-the-links-are-missing, accessed October 8, 2013.

[viii] Johnjoe McFadden (Professor of Molecular Biology and Quantum Physics), Quantum Evolution, 2000, p. 71.

[ix] Jonathan Sarfati, Ph.D., F.M., Refuting Evolution, August 23, 2008, Creation Book Publishers, Creation Ministries International, http://creation.com/refuting-evolution-chapter-3-the-links-are-missing, accessed October 8, 2013.

[x] Jonathan Sarfati, Ph.D., F.M., Refuting Evolution, August 23, 2008, Creation Book Publishers, Creation Ministries International, http://creation.com/refuting-evolution-chapter-3-the-links-are-missing, accessed October 8, 2013.

Missing Links: Will we find them…or not? Naturalistic/Evolutionary Perspective

 

ape-to-man-progression-(ours)Introduction:

Missing Links are the hypothetical intermediates between two differing types of organisms, like between humans and apes. They are termed “Missing” because they are…missing. “There are missing links all over the evolutionary tree”[i] between different kinds of organisms. How many missing links are there?  Are they still missing? Why are they missing?

 

Naturalistic/Evolutionary Answer:

“There are many transitional fossils.”[ii]

Darwin’s tree of life explains how all current organisms are related to each other. Undiscovered transitional forms (Missing links) are the bridges or branches backward in time. Species evolve over time and branch out evolving into different species. So there should be a lot of transitional forms. Practically speaking, every fossil that we are lucky enough to find is a transitional fossil as organisms evolve from a previous ancestor into new species.

The number of transitional fossils is unknown. There are many factors as to why all of them have not been found. Fossilization only happens when the conditions are just right, so it is pretty rare. So fossils are pretty rare. Only a small portion of organisms even fossilize. Most fossils are shells, but the larger organisms are even more rare. [iii]

Also, only a small fraction of the available fossils have been found due to the incompleteness of the fossil record, the amount of rock to look through, and the small amount of scientists actually looking and digging for fossils. Erosion, the movement of the rocks, and non-scientific digging endeavors can cause many fossils to be destroyed and lost forever.

Homo-habilis-skullIt is even possible that as ancient environments changed, the ancient organisms tended to change or evolve rapidly to survive. The change happened so rapidly that fossils are just not preserved, since again, conditions in the environment were not right for fossilization and therefore preserve the organism.

More links between different animal kinds are expected to be found. Just because they have not been found yet, doesn’t mean that they are not in the fossil record.

Every year, we are finding more and more fossils. In recent years, there have been many specific transitional fossils that have been found and here are five examples among others that could be named.

 

Fish to Amphibian Link:  Tiktaalik Rosae

Reptile to Mammal Link:  Thrinaxodon

Reptile to Bird Link:  Archaeopteryx

Land Mammal to Aquatic Mammal Link:  Ambulocetus natans

Quadrupedal Primate to Bipedal Primate Link:  Australopithecus afarensis[iv]

 

Check back tomorrow for the Creation Answer.  Thanks again for your constructive help.

 

by Brian Mariani and others

 

Is the above correct? Do you evolutionists agree with this position? I have tried to write it as you believe it. Do you have any disagreements or concerns or additions?

 

Before commenting, please read the following disclosures.

Any offensive language will automatically disqualify your comment for publication, even if the arguments contained are good. Please comment on the ideas that are presented and not the presenter.  If your comment becomes an ad hominem argument and does not substantially address the issue, your comment will be disqualified as well.  We are looking for real arguments, not fallacious ones, so that we can present and challenge opposing ideas and arguments as they are truly believed by evolutionists.  We do not want to tear down straw men as well as you do not want to be misrepresented. Also, please keep your comments as brief as possible, and if the majority of the comment does not address the current issue, but becomes a red-herring, it will not be posted as well. If your comment does not fall into one of the above restrictions, then your comment will be posted unedited (you may want to check your spelling, grammar, etc.) We thank you for your time and comments.

One thing to keep in mind, each blog is one piece of evidence. Evidence has to then be interpreted, which is not a fact…but evidence strengthening or weakening a specific hypothesis or theory. So there can be multiple ways of interpreting the same evidence. I am not being unscientific, but asking more questions and being skeptical is being more scientific. I am still working on these, so please help with your comments.

 

If you would like to see if an AOI seminar is right for you, or you would like to help the work of Alpha Omega Institute, please visit our website events page or our donate page. Keep up to date with what AOI is doing.  Thanks for your partnership.



[i] John D. Morris, Ph.D., What’s a Missing Link?, Institute for Creation Research, http://www.icr.org/article/2709/, accessed October 7, 2013.

[ii] Claim CC200, http://www.talkorigins.org/indexcc/CC/CC200.html, Accessed October 5, 2013.

[iii] Prothero, Donald R. (2007). Evolution: What the Fossils Say and Why it Matters. Columbia University Press.

[iv] Fossil Evidence, NOVA, PBS, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/id/tran-nf.html, accessed October 5, 2013.

The Cambrian Explosion: Fast Evolution or Flood Layers of Buried Organisms? Creation Perspective

Fish-Eating-Fish-Fossil

 

Creation Answer:

The fossil record is made up of layer after layer of rock that has been laid down by the different water currents before, during and after the flood. The fossils found within the layers are the animals that have been caught up and buried rapidly in those sediments. As the sediments build up during the flood, a sorting happens, which is natural.

Lower layers, like the Precambrian, will have smaller organisms that are less able to move and escape the landslides and sediment deposits amidst the swirling flood waters. The organisms that are faster, yet still slow, will be buried next. Then larger and more mobile organisms will be able to swim or run uphill or climb higher, until they are eventually submerged and buried.

Mass Kill FishIt also depends on where and when the muddy sediments sweep through and engulf a specific environment. We see evidence of large schools of fish all swimming together and buried instantly. Chances are you may have seen evidence of rock layers where the sediments have been swirled and smashed together leaving a concrete of smashed up fossils, often shelled organisms, which is evidence of a destructive flood, not slow burial over long ages.

So what are the fossils? “Precambrian fossils included bizarre organisms too different from Cambrian animals to be their ancestors.” The organisms found in the Cambrian turned out to be “fossils of all the animal ‘crown groups’—those groups most different from each other and thus from the most distant parts (or “crown”) of the animal ‘family tree.’” So this diverse amount of organisms would need to have evolved but “the ancestors of all 30–40 major animal groups (phyla)” are simply missing![i]

The basic premise of evolution is that things change slowly over long periods of time. “Without the time, the formula cannot work, and yet Cambrian fossils are a parade of well-designed creatures that lived at the same time, not in separate evolutionary ages.” Evolutionists are forced to come up with ideas as to how they could have evolved, and some suggest “that animals were actually alive and evolving 800 million years ago. But without the fossils to support their story, why should other scientists believe it?” [ii]

Evolutionary studies of the Cambrian explosion are on the verge of being more story-telling rather than scientific since there are so many unknowns and there is no known mechanism for change, just guesses.

Any theory should be supported by the evidence that we do see (flood burials, lack of transitional fossils, totally new family groups than what existed before), not the evidence that hasn’t been found yet.

 

What the Bible Says: Creation – Gen 1, Flood – Gen 6-9, Is 54:9-10, Matt 24:38-39, Luke 17:26-28, 2 Pet 2:5, 2 Pet 3:3-7

 

by Brian Mariani and others

 

Before commenting, please read the following disclosures.

Any offensive language will automatically disqualify your comment for publication, even if the arguments contained are good. Please comment on the ideas that are presented and not the presenter.  If your comment becomes an ad hominem argument and does not substantially address the issue, your comment will be disqualified as well.  We are looking for real arguments, not fallacious ones, so that we can present and challenge opposing ideas and arguments as they are truly believed by evolutionists.  We do not want to tear down straw men as well as you do not want to be misrepresented. Also, please keep your comments as brief as possible, and if the majority of the comment does not address the current issue, but becomes a red-herring, it will not be posted as well. If your comment does not fall into one of the above restrictions, then your comment will be posted unedited (you may want to check your spelling, grammar, etc.) We thank you for your time and comments.

One thing to keep in mind, each blog is one piece of evidence. Evidence has to then be interpreted, which is not a fact…but evidence strengthening or weakening a specific hypothesis or theory. So there can be multiple ways of interpreting the same evidence. I am not being unscientific, but asking more questions and being skeptical is being more scientific. I am still working on these, so please help with your comments.

 

If you would like to see if an AOI seminar is right for you, or you would like to help the work of Alpha Omega Institute, please visit our website events page or our donate page. Keep up to date with what AOI is doing.  Thanks for your partnership.

 



[i] Wise, Kurt, Five Fossil Mysteries: One: Life’s Unexpected Explosion: What Explains the Cambrian Explosion?, November 23, 2009, Answers in Genesis, http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/am/v5/n1/life-explosion, accessed September 20, 2013.

Wieland, Carl, Exploding Evolution: Creatures found as fossils in ‘Cambrian’ rocks have no evolutionary ancestors. And no new basic body plans have appeared since. Creation Ministries International, http://creation.com/exploding-evolution, accessed September 20, 2013.

[ii] Thomas, Brian M.S., Is the Cambrian Explosion Problem Solved?, Institute for Creation Research, http://www.icr.org/article/6507/, accessed September 20, 2013.

The Cambrian Explosion: Fast Evolution or Flood Layers of Buried Organisms? Naturalistic/Evolutionary Perspective

cambrian-explosion-Denver

Introduction:

The Cambrian Explosion is the supposed explosion of life in which only a few simple organisms immediately burst into a immense variety of more complex organisms. This was also a point in time when many organisms went extinct. The evidence and basis for this idea is that there are simpler fossils in the lower rock layers and in just a few layers above these there is a large variety of complex life forms fossilized in the higher Cambrian layers.

How could the theory of evolution explain such an impossibly fast transition of fossils in the fossil record? Could the organisms have evolved that fast? Was there more time that is not recorded between those rock layers? What could be the cause of so much change?

 

Naturalistic/Evolutionary Answer:

Over the 4.5 billion year history of the earth, the rock layers have been building up slowly, just a little bit at a time, due to seasonal flooding and ocean/lake sediments building up on the floor. As life slowly evolved on earth due to mutations and environmental stresses, small organisms evolved into bigger and more complex organisms. So as these organisms are trapped in the sediments, they are able to fossilize. Thus the fossils in the Precambrian rock should be smaller and less advanced.

Between 570-530 million years ago there was a extremely rapid change in many organisms, possibly encouraged by greater oxygen levels than ever before and/or the extinction event of many organisms, the newer organisms developed rapidly to fill the niches in the new environments. An ice age or “Snowball Earth” at this time may have caused the change of environments and been the mechanism for evolution.[i] Ozone was finally thick enough to start shielding the earth from harmful UV rays to allow for more evolution. With more underwater volcanism, more calcium would have been available in the oceans for organisms to develop and evolve their shells.[ii] It is debated, but some believe that the evolution of eyes and eyesight caused an explosion of evolution as predators and prey co-evolved.[iii]

This turnover in species was pushed by “an unprecedented period of evolutionary experimentation – and competition.”[iv] Once the new organisms settled into their environment, evolutionary changes were again small and minor in a more stable environment. These new organisms represent the ancestors of most modern day organisms.

cambrian-seaThis sudden “Cambrian Explosion,” seen as an example of “Punctuated Equilibrium,” means that the slow, steady process of evolution jumped due to radical changes in the environment that led to many drastic changes in the prior species’ evolution into new species.

“It’s important to remember that what we call “the fossil record” is only the available fossil record.”[v] More transitional fossils, or missing links, of the species in between would be expected to be found, although those transitional organisms may not have been buried under the right conditions and therefore may not have been preserved. If the transitional organisms were fossilized, they may have been eroded from the fossil record. So it is not necessarily unusual that there are jumps between grandfather to grandson species, simply because maybe Dad was not preserved.

Check back tomorrow for the Creation Answer.  Thanks again for your constructive help.

 

by Brian Mariani and others

 

Is the above correct? Do you evolutionists agree with this position? I have tried to write it as you believe it. Do you have any disagreements or concerns or additions?

 

Before commenting, please read the following disclosures.

Any offensive language will automatically disqualify your comment for publication, even if the arguments contained are good. Please comment on the ideas that are presented and not the presenter.  If your comment becomes an ad hominem argument and does not substantially address the issue, your comment will be disqualified as well.  We are looking for real arguments, not fallacious ones, so that we can present and challenge opposing ideas and arguments as they are truly believed by evolutionists.  We do not want to tear down straw men as well as you do not want to be misrepresented. Also, please keep your comments as brief as possible, and if the majority of the comment does not address the current issue, but becomes a red-herring, it will not be posted as well. If your comment does not fall into one of the above restrictions, then your comment will be posted unedited (you may want to check your spelling, grammar, etc.) We thank you for your time and comments.

One thing to keep in mind, each blog is one piece of evidence. Evidence has to then be interpreted, which is not a fact…but evidence strengthening or weakening a specific hypothesis or theory. So there can be multiple ways of interpreting the same evidence. I am not being unscientific, but asking more questions and being skeptical is being more scientific. I am still working on these, so please help with your comments.

 

If you would like to see if an AOI seminar is right for you, or you would like to help the work of Alpha Omega Institute, please visit our website events page or our donate page. Keep up to date with what AOI is doing.  Thanks for your partnership.

 


 

[i] Hoffman, P.F., Kaufman, A.J., Halverson, G.P., and Schrag, D.P. (28 August 1998). “A Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth” (abstract). Science 281 (5381): 1342–1346.

[ii] Novel Evolutionary Theory For The Explosion Of Life, October 27, 2009, Science Daily, http://www.sott.net/article/195681-Novel-Evolutionary-Theory-For-The-Explosion-Of-Life, accessed September 20, 2013.

[iii] McCall (2006). “The Vendian (Ediacaran) in the geological record: Enigmas in geology’s prelude to the Cambrian explosion”. Earth-Science Reviews 77: 1.

[iv] The Cambrian Explosion, 2001, PBS, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/03/4/l_034_02.html, accessed September 20, 2013.

[v] The Cambrian Explosion, 2001, PBS, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/03/4/l_034_02.html, accessed September 20, 2013.

Dinosaurs: Millions of Years or Only Thousands? Creation Perspective

 

Creation Answer:

Dinosaurs are yet another land animal that was created on day 6, before Adam and Eve. They were herbivores like everything was initially in the Garden before sin. Their sharp teeth could have been used to crush coconuts or melons, etc. They were still around at the time of the flood and probably two young, small representatives of each kind went on the ark. Those that did not make it on the ark were buried in the rock layers created by the flood only a little over 4000 years ago.[i]

So Dinosaurs and man lived together for a long time. Although they are highly disputed, the Paluxy river tracks show human footprints inside or next to dinosaur footprints, and if they are authentic, they are one piece of evidence of the two living together. We can assume that not much evidence may be found, because 1) humans would probably not live near/with dinosaurs…that could be a dangerous living situation, 2) “fossilization is a rare event,” and 3) humans were probably more mobile or able to swim or float for some time before perishing in the flood.[ii]

cowboys-and-QuetzalcoatlasThe Bible records descriptions of what it calls Behemoth and Leviathon, which may be a land dwelling dinosaur and a water dwelling dinosaur respectively based on the descriptions. There are countless Dragon Legends from cultures all over the world that might fit the description of dinosaurs. Dinosaurs were probably hunted to extinction, as we hear of by the brave knights of old. There are also legends of flying dinosaurs in the Americas including those called Thunderbirds in the American Southwest. There are also reports that other cultures today still claim to have seen dinosaurs, such as Australian Aborigines, natives of Papa New Guinea, African people of the Congo, and even visitors of Loch Ness among other people around the world.[iii]

Did birds evolve from dinosaurs? God specifically explained how birds were created on day 5 and then land animals on day 6. Archaeoraptor was one exciting new find of a feathered dinosaur that National Geographic reported on that they later had to retract as a composite of two fossils, and therefore a hoax.[iv] Archaeopteryx and Xiaotingia zhengi were two supposed missing links between dinosaurs and birds, yet the evidence is shaky and becoming less in support of evolution. [v]Is there enough evidence of dinosaurs with feathers?

TRex blood cellsSoft tissue from dinosaur bones is better understood as being younger in age rather than the assumed 65 million years old. One would be hard pressed to try to explain the process that would preserve the soft tissue for many millions of years.[vi]

 

 

 

dino soft tissue 05

 

 

 

 

 

What the Bible Says: Gen 1, Job 40-41, Psalm 74:13-14, Psalm 104:26, Is 27:1

 

By Brian Mariani

Before commenting, please read the following disclosures.

Any offensive language will automatically disqualify your comment for publication, even if the arguments contained are good. Please comment on the ideas that are presented and not the presenter.  If your comment becomes an ad hominem argument and does not substantially address the issue, your comment will be disqualified as well.  We are looking for real arguments, not fallacious ones, so that we can present and challenge opposing ideas and arguments as they are truly believed by evolutionists.  We do not want to tear down straw men as well as you do not want to be misrepresented. Also, please keep your comments as brief as possible, and if the majority of the comment does not address the current issue, but becomes a red-herring, it will not be posted as well. If your comment does not fall into one of the above restrictions, then your comment will be posted unedited (you may want to check your spelling, grammar, etc.) We thank you for your time and comments.

One thing to keep in mind, each blog is one piece of evidence. Evidence has to then be interpreted, which is not a fact…but evidence strengthening or weakening a specific hypothesis or theory. So there can be multiple ways of interpreting the same evidence. I am not being unscientific, but asking more questions and being skeptical is being more scientific. I am still working on these, so please help with your comments.

 

If you would like to see if an AOI seminar is right for you, or you would like to help the work of Alpha Omega Institute, please visit our website events page or our donate page. Keep up to date with what AOI is doing.  Thanks for your partnership.

 


[i] Ham, Ken. “Dinosaurs and the Bible.” Answers in Genesis. November 5, 1999. http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/1999/11/05/dinosaurs-and-the-bible. Accessed November 4, 2012.

[ii] Hodge, Bodie. “Why Don’t We Find Human and Dinosaur Fossils Together?” Answers in Genesis. November 1, 2007. http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/nab/human-and-dino-fossils-together. Accessed November 4, 2012.

[iii] Answers in Genesis. http://www.answersingenesis.org/get-answers#/topic/dinosaurs. Accessed November 4, 2012.

[iv] “Archaeoraptor Hoax Update – National Geographic Recants!” Answers in Genesis. March 2, 2000. http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/2000/03/02/archeoraptor-hoax. Accessed November 4, 2012.

[v] “Archaeopteryx Has Flown the Coop.” Answers Magazine. December 23, 2011. http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/am/v7/n1/flown-the-coop. Accessed November 4, 2012.

[vi] Menton, David. “#3 Soft Tissues in Fossils.” Answers Magazine. September 11, 2012. http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/am/v7/n4/soft-tissue-in-fossils. Accessed November 4, 2012.

Dinosaurs: Millions of Years or Only Thousands? Naturalistic/Evolutionary Perspective

 

TheAgeofDinosaursIntroduction:

Everyone today has heard that at one time, long ago, dinosaurs roamed our world. Dinosaurs were some of the largest land animals ever to live. Thousands of dinosaur fossils can be found throughout the fossil record. Soft Tissue has also been discovered in numerous examples now. Did dinosaurs have feathers? What is the Truth about dinosaurs? What were they like? When did they live?

 

Naturalistic/Evolutionary Answer:

Dinosaurs lived between 230 – 65 Millions years ago.[i] They evolved from smaller reptiles and many dinosaurs evolved into birds.[ii] There are approximately 700 species of dinosaurs, but some estimate that there are more to be found.[iii] Different types of dinosaurs including (but not limited to) theropods, sauropods, stegosaurs, ankylosaurs and eventually birds lived and evolved during the different periods of history such as the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous periods. Dinosaurs themselves went extinct probably due to a large meteor strike that changed the earth’s climate enough that there was poor air quality and not enough food for dinosaurs and so they died away. [iv] [v] This great extinction of the dinosaurs began the Cenozoic Era of history, in which we live today.[vi] Dinosaur fossils can be found because the dinosaurs were buried in volcanic ash or buried due to seasonal flooding.

King Georg & dragon 1Because dinosaurs lived so long ago, there is no way that they could have ever lived with humans, and there have never been human fossils found in the same layers with dinosaur fossils. All the species of dinosaurs would not have been able to fit on the ark even if Noah’s ark is true and dinosaurs were still around. They could in no way be mistaken for dragons, because they went extinct a long time ago as shown in the fossil record. Dragons are fantasy and make for good stories.[vii]

Since dinosaurs evolved into birds, there are some dinosaurs in the fossil record, similar to Archeaopteryx, that have feathers. In an article in Nature, Brian Switek reports that “palaeontologists have recognized more than 30 types of feathered dinosaur.” Switek continues to say that some scientists have found evidence of at least protofeathers on many dinosaurs and that they and “feathers seem to be an ancestral dinosaurian trait.” So all dinosaurs may have had either some form of protofeathers or feathers themselves, but “the trick will be finding specimens in the sorts of fine-grained sediments capable of preserving feather fossil.”[viii]

For the past 10 years, Mary Schweitzer has discovered numerous examples of soft tissue still preserved in dinosaur bones. The soft tissue within rock fossils that has been found shows that those specimens have been highly preserved through possibly some new process. In Barry Yeoman’s article describing Schweitzer’s journey of discovery, he writes “if the soft tissue can last 65 million years, Horner says, ‘there may be a lot of things out there that we’ve missed because of our assumption of how preservation works.’”[ix]

 

Check back tomorrow for the Creation Answer.  Thanks again for your constructive help.

 

By Brian Mariani

 

Before commenting, please read the following disclosures.

Any offensive language will automatically disqualify your comment for publication, even if the arguments contained are good. Please comment on the ideas that are presented and not the presenter.  If your comment becomes an ad hominem argument and does not substantially address the issue, your comment will be disqualified as well.  We are looking for real arguments, not fallacious ones, so that we can present and challenge opposing ideas and arguments as they are truly believed by evolutionists.  We do not want to tear down straw men as well as you do not want to be misrepresented. Also, please keep your comments as brief as possible, and if the majority of the comment does not address the current issue, but becomes a red-herring, it will not be posted as well. If your comment does not fall into one of the above restrictions, then your comment will be posted unedited (you may want to check your spelling, grammar, etc.) We thank you for your time and comments.

One thing to keep in mind, each blog is one piece of evidence. Evidence has to then be interpreted, which is not a fact…but evidence strengthening or weakening a specific hypothesis or theory. So there can be multiple ways of interpreting the same evidence. I am not being unscientific, but asking more questions and being skeptical is being more scientific. I am still working on these, so please help with your comments.

 

If you would like to see if an AOI seminar is right for you, or you would like to help the work of Alpha Omega Institute, please visit our website events page or our donate page. Keep up to date with what AOI is doing.  Thanks for your partnership.

 


 

[i] USGS. “When did the dinosaurs first appear on earth?” Ronald J. Litwin, Robert E Weems, and Thomas R. Holtz, Jr. Last Modified May 17, 2001. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dinosaurs/when.html. Accessed November 4, 2012.

[ii] Smithsonian: National Museum of Natural History. “Dinosaurs, Everything you wanted to know: Anatomy & Evolution.” http://paleobiology.si.edu/dinosaurs/info/everything/evo_1.html. Accessed November 4, 2012.

[iii] USGS. “How many types of dinosaurs are known?” Ronald J. Litwin, Robert E Weems, and Thomas R. Holtz, Jr. Last Modified May 17, 2001. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dinosaurs/types.html. Accessed November 4, 2012.

[iv] USGS. “Dinosaurs: Facts and Fiction” Ronald J. Litwin, Robert E Weems, and Thomas R. Holtz, Jr. Last Modified August 6, 2007. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dinosaurs/. Accessed November 4, 2012.

[v] PBS. “What Killed the Dinosaurs?” 2001. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/extinction/dinosaurs/. Accessed November 4, 2012.

[vi] Smithsonian: National Museum of Natural History. “Dinosaurs, Everything you wanted to know: What Is a Dinosaur?” http://paleobiology.si.edu/dinosaurs/info/everything/what_4.html. Accessed November 4, 2012.

[vii] USGS. “Did people and dinosaurs live at the same time?” Last Modified May 17, 2001. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dinosaurs/people.html. Accessed November 4, 2012.

[viii] Switek, Brian. “Rise of the feathered dinosaurs.” July 2, 2012. http://www.nature.com/news/rise-of-the-feathered-dinosaurs-1.10933. Accessed November 4, 2012.

[ix] Yeoman, Barry. “Schweitzer’s Dangerous Discovery.” Discover Magazine. Published online April 27, 2006. http://discovermagazine.com/2006/apr/dinosaur-dna. Accessed November 4, 2012.